In the new independent study, researchers from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) reassessed data from Philip Morris' Project MIX, which detailed chemical analyses of smoke and animal toxicology studies of 333 cigarette additives. Philip Morris published its findings in 2002.
By investigating the origins and design of Project MIX, the UCSF researchers conducted their own inquiry into the Philip Morris results. They stressed that many of the toxins in cigarette smoke substantially increased after additives were added to cigarettes.
They also found, after obtaining evidence that additives increased toxicity, that tobacco scientists adjusted the protocol for presenting their results in a way that obscured these increases.
"We discovered these post-hoc changes in analytical protocols after the industry scientists found that the additives increased cigarette toxicity by increasing the number of fine particles in the cigarette smoke that cause heart and other diseases," said senior author Stanton Glantz, PhD, a professor of medicine and director of the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at UCSF, in a press release. "When we conducted our own analysis by studying additives per cigarette -- following Philip Morris' original protocol -- we found that 15 carcinogenic chemicals increased by 20% or more."
The researchers say they also discovered the reason behind Philip Morris' failure to identify many toxic effects in animal studies.
"The experiment was too small in terms of the number of rats analyzed to statistically detect important changes in biological effects," Glantz said. "Philip Morris underpowered its own studies."
The results of Project MIX were first published as four papers in a 2002 edition of Food and Chemical Toxicology, a journal whose editor and many members of its editorial board had financial ties to the tobacco industry. In the new study, the researchers used documents made public as a result of litigation against the tobacco industry. The documents are available to the public through UCSF's Legacy Tobacco Documents Library.
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