Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexually Related Conditions, and Common Oral Manifestations
You will receive 3 credit(s) of continuing education credit upon successful completion of this course.

This course will discuss the most common types of sexually transmitted infections that occur in the United States.  The incidence, prevalence, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections will be discussed along with the oral lesions and manifestations that occur as the result these infections.

Author Image
Gregory Naylor, DDS

Dr. Gregory D. Naylor is a native of western Massachusetts.  He graduated with honors from Springfield College in 1974 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Biology.  He received a Doctorate in Dental Surgery from Georgetown University School of Dentistry in 1978 and was inducted into the Omicron Kappa Upsilon Honor Society.  After graduation from dental school, he received a commission in the United States Navy and served in the Navy for over 27 years.  His assignments in...

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Learning Objectives:

After completing this lesson, the reviewer will:


1.   Understand the incidence and prevalence of sexually related diseases.

2.   Understand the symptoms of sexually related diseases.

3.   Understand the treatment of patients with sexually related diseases.

4.   Understand the oral complications that result from sexually related diseases.

5.   Understand how to treat these oral complications.


Sexually transmitted diseases (infections) are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States today.  More than 20 different sexually transmitted diseases (infections) have been identified, and about 19 million men and women are infected each year in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Infection.  Sexually transmitted infections may be spread through any type of sexual activity involving the sex organs, the anus, or the mouth, and the infection may also be spread through contact with blood during sexual activity.  Some sexually transmitted infections may be transmitted by contact with blood or other body fluids by the sharing of unsterilized intravenous drug needles, as well as through childbirth and breastfeeding.  This discussion reviews the most common types of sexually transmitted infections that occur in the United States.  The incidence, prevalence, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections will be discussed along with the oral lesions and manifestations that occur as the result these infections.


1.  Introduction

2.  Sexually Transmitted Infections

      A.   Human Papilloma Virus 

      B.   Chlamydia

      C.   Gonorrhea                    

      D.   Syphilis                                    

      E.   Hepatitis                                  

      F.   Herpes                         

      G.   Trichomoniasis  

3.  Sexually Related Conditions

      A.   Fellatio Syndrome                                 

      B.   Traumatic Lesions of the Lingual Frenum        

4.  Dental Management

      A.   Patients with a Sexually Transmitted Infection History

      B.   State Reporting                         

5.  Conclusion

6.  Examination

7.  References


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2.   Ault KA. Epidemiology and natural history of human papilloma virus infections in the female genital

tract. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2006 (Supp): 40470.

3.   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2011.

Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.

4.   Schachter J, Atwood G. Chlamydial pharyngitis. J Am Vener Dis Assoc 1975;2:12.

5.   Terezhalmy GT, Naylor GD. Oral manifestations of selected sexually related conditions. Dermatol Clin. Apr 1996;14(2):303-17.

6.   APHL. Laboratory Diagnostic Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Expert Consultation Meeting Summary Report. January 13-15, 2009. Atlanta, GA.

7.   Hosenfeld CB, Workowski KA, Berman S, et al. Repeat infection with Chlamydia and gonorrhea among females: a systematic review of the literature. Sexually transmitted diseases 2009;36:478-89.

8.   Ogawa H, Hashiguchi K, Kazuyama Y. Prolonged and recurrent tonsillitis associated with sexually transmitted chlamydia trachomatis. J Laryngol Otol 1992;107:27-29.

9.   Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004;36(1):6–10.

10.  Peterman T, Tian L, Metcalf C et al. High incidence of new sexually transmitted infections in the year following a sexually transmitted infection: a case for rescreening. Ann Intern Med 2006;145(8):564–572.

11.  Harrison WO, Hooper MR, Wiesner PJ et al. A trial of minocycline given after exposure to prevent gonorrhea. N Engl J Med 1979;300(19):1074–1078.

12.  Platt R, Rice PA, McCormack WM. Risk of acquiring gonorrhea and prevalence of abnormal adnexal findings among women recently exposed to gonorrhea. JAMA 1983;250(23):3205–3209.

13.  McCormack WM, Johnson K, Stumacher RJ, Donner A, Rychwalski R. Clinical spectrum of gonococcal infection in women. Lancet.1977;1(8023):1182–1185.

14.  Klein EJ, Fisher LS, Chow AW, Guze LB. Anorectal gonococcal infection.  Ann Intern Med 1977;86: 340–346.

15.  Bro-Jorgensen A, Jensen T. Gonococcal pharyngeal infections: report of 110 cases. Brit J Vener Dis 1973;49:491–499.

16.  Thatcher RW, McCraney WF, Kellogg DS, et al. Asymptomatic gonorrhea. JAMA 1969;210:315-321. 

17.  Metzger AL. Gonococcal arthritis complicating gonorrheal pharyngitis. Ann Intern Med 1970;73:267-269. 

18.  Chue PWJ. Gonorrhea - its natural history, oral manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.  J Am Dent Assoc 1975;90:1297. 

19.  Escobar V, Farman AG, Arm RN. Oral gonococcal infection. Int J Oral Surg 1984;13:549-554.

20.  Marini D, Veraldi S, Innocenti M. Oral cavity abscess due to neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cutis 1987;40:363-364.

21.  Weisner PM, Tronca E, Bonin P, et al. Clinical spectrum of pharyngeal gonococcal infection. N Engl J Med 1973;288:181-185.  

22.  Center for Disease Control: Gonorrhea.  Update to CDC's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections.  Morbidity Modality Weekly Rep. 2012;61(31);590-594.

23.  Summers L, Booth DR. Intraoral condyloma acuminatum. Oral Surg 1974;38:273-278.

24.  Doyle JL, Gordjesk JE, Manhold JH. Condyloma acuminatum occurring in the oral cavity. Oral Surg 1968;26:434-440. 

25.  Knapp MJ, Uohara GI.  Oral condyloma acuminatum. Oral Surg 1967;23:538-545. 

26.  Peterman, T.A., et al. The changing epidemiology of syphilis. Sex Transm Dis, 2005;32(10 Suppl):S4-10.

27.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2002 Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003.

28.  Su, J.R., et al. Primary and secondary syphilis among black and Hispanic men who have sex with men: case report data from 27 States. Ann Intern Med, 2011;155(3):145-51.

29.  Fiumara NJ, Berg M. Primary syphilis in the oral cavity. Br J Vener Dis 1974;50:463-464.

30.  Fiumara NJ, Lessell S. Manifestations of the late congenital syphilis. Arch Dermatol 1970;102:78-83. 

31.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Among Persons Aged 14-49 Years - United States, 2005–2008. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006;59(15):456–459.

32.  Fiumara NJ: Venereal diseases of the oral cavity. J Oral Med 1976;31:36-40, 55. 

33.  Bellizzi R, Krakow AM, Plack W. Soft palate trauma associated with fellatio: Case report. Mil Med 1980;145:787-788.

34.  Giansanti JS, Cramer JR, Weathers DR. Palatal erythema: Another etiologic factor.  Oral Surg 1975;40:379-381’ 

35.  Schlesinger SL, Borbotsina J, O'Neill L. Petechial hemorrhages of the soft palate secondary to fellatio. Oral Surg 1975;40:376-378.   

36.  Madar CL. Lingual frenum ulcer resulting from orogenital sex. J Am Dent Assoc 1981;103:888-890. 

37.  Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings, 2003. MMWR, December 19, 2003:52(RR-17).

Release date: February 1, 2017
Review date: January 1, 2016
Expiration date: December 31, 2018
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